Carotid Artery Disease is the blockage of the carotid artery due to plaque or fatty deposits. The brain receives its blood supply from four major arteries, two carotid arteries at the front of the neck, and two vertebral arteries at the back of the neck.
Ulcers can form on the surface of the plaque, which can release the contents of the plaque into the circulation. The debris from the plaque travels to the brain and blocks the small arteries supplying the brain, causing a stroke or a mini-stroke / transient ischaemic attack (TIA).
A Carotid Endarterectomy is the procedure that the surgeon will do to remove the plaque inside the carotid artery to prevent cholesterol debris from travelling to the brain.
Reference- St George Vascular Services